Anemia - Definition, Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, Pathophysiology

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Anemia - Definition, Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, Pathophysiology

Definition of Anemia

Anemia is a symptom of an underlying condition, such as loss of blood components, elements of inadequate or lack of nutrients needed for the formation of red blood cells, resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood (Doenges, 1999).


Etiology of Anemia

The most common cause of anemia is deficiency of nutrients required for the synthesis of red blood cells, such as iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid. The rest is the result of a variety of conditions such as hemorrhage, genetic abnormalities, chronic disease, drug toxicity, and so on.

A common cause of anemia:
  • Heavy bleeding
  • Acute (sudden)
  • Accident
  • Surgery
  • Give birth
  • Rupture of blood vessels
  • Chronic disease (chronic)
  • Bleeding nose
  • Hemorrhoids (haemorrhoids)
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Cancer or polyps in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Kidney or bladder tumors
  • Menstrual bleeding that is very much
  • Reduced red blood cell formation
  • Iron deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Folic acid deficiency
  • Vitamin C deficiency
  • Chronic disease
  • Increased destruction of red blood cells
  • Enlargement of the spleen
  • Mechanical damage to red blood cells
  • Autoimmune reactions against red blood cells
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  • Hereditary Spherocytosis
  • Hereditary Elliptositosis
  • G6PD deficiency
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Hemoglobin C disease
  • S-hemoglobin C disease
  • Hemoglobin E disease
  • Thalassemia (Burton, 1990).

Clinical Manifestations of Anemia

Clinical symptoms that appear to reflect impaired function of the various systems in the body including decreased physical performance, neurological (nerve) which is manifested in changes in behavior, anorexia (loss emaciated), and abnormal cognitive development in children. Growth abnormalities often occur, epithelial dysfunction, and reduced gastric acidity.

Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, lack of energy and the head was floating. If the anemia gets worse, can lead to stroke or heart attack (Sjaifoellah, 1998).


Pathophysiology of Anemia


Incidence of anemia reflect the presence of bone marrow failure or excessive loss of red blood cells or both. Bone marrow failure can occur due to nutritional deficiencies, toxic exposures, tumor, or mostly due to unknown causes. Red blood cells can be lost through hemorrhage or hemolysis (destruction) in the latter case, the problem can be caused by the effects of red blood cells that do not correspond to the resistance of normal red blood cells or due to several factors outside the red blood cells that causes red blood cell destruction.
Red blood cell lysis (dissolution) occurs mainly in the phagocytic system or in the reticuloendothelial system, especially in the liver and spleen. As a byproduct of this process the bilirubin that is formed in phagocytes will enter the bloodstream. Any increase in red blood cell destruction (hemolysis) immediately reflected by increasing plasma bilirubin (normal concentration of 1 mg / dl or less; levels of 1.5 mg / dl result in jaundice in the sclera.
Anemia is a blood disease characterized less low levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (erythrocytes). The function of the blood is carrying food and oxygen to all organs of the body. If the supply is less, then the intake of oxygen will be less. As a result, can inhibit the work of the vital organs, the brain One. The brain consists of 2.5 billion bioneuron cells. If capacity is lacking, then the brain will be like computer memory is weak, slow catch. And if it is damaged, can not be repaired (Sjaifoellah, 1998).

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