Dispersal and Disease Anthrax Diagnosis

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Dispersal and Disease Anthrax Diagnosis

Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Most of the shape of a deadly disease, and it affects humans and other animals. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease that responds well to antibiotic treatment.


Like many other members of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis endospores can form an active (often referred to as "spores" for short, but not to be confused with fungal spores) which can survive in harsh conditions for decades or even centuries. Spores can be found on all continents, even Antarctica. When spores are inhaled, ingested, or associated with skin lesions on the host, may reactivate and multiply rapidly.

Anthrax usually infects wild and domesticated herbivorous mammals that ingest or inhale the spores while grazing. Ingestion is considered the most common route of anthrax in herbivores. Carnivores living in the same environment can be infected by eating infected animals because animals exposed to anthrax. Sick animals could spread anthrax in humans, either by direct contact (eg, inoculation of infected blood to the skin is broken) or by eating meat from diseased animals.

Anthrax spores can be produced in vitro and used as a biological weapon. Anthrax is not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another, but is spread by spores. These spores can be transported by clothing or shoes. Anthrax is an animal that has been active at the time of death can also be a source of anthrax spores.

Deployment
Anthrax can enter the human body through the intestines (gastrointestinal), lungs (inhalation), or skin (skin) and causes distinct clinical symptoms based on the entry site. In general, a man who is infected will be quarantined. However, anthrax does not usually spread from infected humans to humans who are not infected. However, if the disease is fatal in a person's body, then the mass of anthrax bacilli becomes a potential source of infection to others and special precautions must be used to prevent further contamination. Occurring inhalational anthrax, if untreated until obvious symptoms occur, can be fatal.

Diagnosis
In addition to Gram stain specimens, no specific identification technique for identification of Bacillus species in clinical material. The organism is Gram-positive, but with the passage of time can be a Gram-negative. A special feature of Bacillus species that makes it unique from other aerobic microorganisms is its ability to produce spores. Although the spores are not always clear on Gram staining of this organism, the presence of spores confirmed that the organism is from the genus Bacillus.

All Bacillus species grow well on 5% sheep blood agar culture media and routine. Plet (acetate polymyxin-lysozyme-EDTA-thallous) can be used to isolate B.anthracis from contaminated specimens, and gelatin bicarbonate is used as an identification method to induce capsule formation.

Bacillus sp. will usually grow within 24 hours of incubation at 35 degrees C, in ambient air (room temperature) or in 5% CO2. If gelatin is used for identification bicarbonate then the media should be incubated in 5% CO2.

B.anthracis emerged as a medium-large, gray, flat, irregular with projections of swirling, often referred to as the appearance of "medusa head", and non-hemolytic on agar 5% sheep blood. This is a non-motile, susceptible to penicillin and produce a broad zone of lecithinase on egg yolk in order. Confirmation testing to identify B.anthracis including gamma bacteriophage test, indirect hemagglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies.

Prevention
Vaccine
An anthrax vaccine licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufactured from a non-virulent strains of anthrax bacteria, produced by BioPort Corporation, subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions. BioThrax trade name, though commonly called Anthrax Vaccine terabsorpsi (AVA). It was previously administered in the six-dose primary series at 0, 2, 4 weeks and 6, 12, 18 months, with annual boosters to maintain immunity. On December 11, 2008, the FDA approved the elimination of a dose of 2 weeks, resulting in a five-dose series is recommended at this time.

Unlike the countries of NATO, the Soviets developed and uses live anthrax spore vaccine, known as STI vaccines, produced in Tbilisi, Georgia. Its serious side-effects limit the use to healthy adults.
Treatment
Anthrax can not spread directly from person to person, but the patient's clothing and body may be contaminated with anthrax spores. Decontamination is effective in humans can be achieved by thorough washing with antimicrobial soap and water effectively. Wastewater must be treated with bleach or other anti-microbial agents. Effective decontamination in the affected material can be accomplished by boiling contaminated materials in water for 30 minutes or more. Chlorine bleach is not effective in destroying spores and vegetative cells on the surface, yet effective formaldehyde. The burning of clothing is very effective in destroying spores. After decontamination, no need to immunize, treat or isolate the sick person's contact with anthrax unless they are also exposed to the same source of infection.
Antibiotics
Giving antibiotics early anthrax is essential-delay antibiotic treatment significantly reduces the chance of survival.

Treatment for anthrax infection and other bacterial infections includes large doses of intravenous and oral antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, like ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline, erythromycin vancomycin, or penicillin. The FDA approved the use of drugs, including ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and penicillin.

In the case of the possibility of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic prophylaxis treatment is crucial to prevent possible death.

In May 2009, Human Genome Sciences filed biological License Application (BLA, permission to market) for new drugs, raxibacumab (brand name ABthrax) intended for emergency treatment of inhalation anthrax. If death occurs from anthrax the body should be insulated to prevent the possible spread of anthrax germs. Funeral not kill anthrax spores.

In recent years there have been many attempts to develop new drugs against anthrax, but existing drugs are also effective if treatment is started as soon as possible.


Prevention
If someone is suspected to have died of anthrax, every precaution must be taken to avoid skin contact with body fluids potentially contaminated and radiate through natural body openings. The body should be put in strict quarantine. Blood samples were taken in a sealed container and analyzed in laboratories approved should be used to determine whether anthrax was the cause of death. Microscopic visualization of encapsulated bacilli, usually in huge quantities in preparations stained with polychrome methylene blue (McFadyean) is fully diagnostic, although the culture of the organism is still the gold standard for diagnosis. Isolation of full-body exposure is essential to prevent contamination that may be on others. Protective, waterproof clothing and equipment like rubber gloves, rubber aprons and rubber boots without holes should be used when handling the body affected by anthrax. The skin, especially if you have cuts or scratches, should not be exposed. Disposable protective equipment is better, but if not available, decontamination can be achieved by autoclaving. protective equipment and disposable filters should be autoclaved, and / or burned and buried. Bacillus anthracis bacillii ranged in size from 0.5 to 5.0 pM. Anyone working with anthrax in a suspected or confirmed victims should wear a respirator capable of filtering particles of this size or smaller. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) approved high efficiency-respirator, such as disposable half-face respirator with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, highly recommended.

All the beds may be contaminated or clothing should be isolated in a double plastic bag and treated as a bio-hazard waste is possible. Victims should be sealed in an airtight body bag. The dead are open and do not burn an ideal source of anthrax spores. Cremation (burning) the victim is the preferred way of handling body disposal. Embalming or autopsy should not be attempted without a lab with a full biohazard protection and personnel are trained and knowledgeable.

Although a few days delay may make the disease untreatable and treatment should be started even without symptoms if possible contamination or exposure is suspected. Animals with anthrax often just die without any obvious symptoms. Initial symptoms may resemble common cold sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches and malaise. After several days, the symptoms may progress to severe breathing problems and shock and ultimately death. Death can occur from about two days to a month after exposure to a dead body because of anthrax and apparently peaking at about 8 days after exposure. Early detection can allow the source of anthrax infection precautions that should be taken.

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